The Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education 60 years ago began when Oliver L. Brown, a welder, went to court because his daughter Linda could not attend Sumner Elementary School in Topeka, Kan., seven blocks from her home.
The Supreme Court ruled definitively that “separate but equal” has no place in the American Constitution, that separate facilities are inherently unequal. Sixty years later, residential patterns have resegregated many of our schools. First lady Michelle Obama speaking in Topeka noted “many young people in America are going to school largely with kids who look just like them. Too often, those schools aren’t equal, especially ones attended by students of color, which too often lag behind, with crumbling classrooms and less experienced teachers.” And if schoolrooms have resegregated, boardrooms have never really desegregated. We have come a long way, but we have a long way to go.
Not just trains either
Yet, just as it is important to understand what remains to be done, the historic importance of the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown should not be overlooked. Brown overturned the ignominious Supreme Court in Plessy vs. Ferguson, in which the court ruled that separate but equal train facilities fulfilled the constitutional guarantee of equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment. Just as Plessy wasn’t solely about train cars, Brown wasn’t solely about schools. Plessy legitimized legal apartheid in the United States. African-Americans in the South were banned from using White public facilities, libraries, transportation, swimming pools, schools and more.
Segregation ruled all aspects of life from birthplaces to graveyards.
With its decision in Brown, the Supreme Court ruled that separate but equal had no place under our Constitution. It ended legal segregation not just in classrooms but also in all aspects of life. For those of us who were growing up at the time, the ruling was truly revolutionary. Loving parents, fearful for their children’s safety, had taught us to respect the walls that had been built under segregation. We should limit our dreams to the opportunities that existed behind the walls. In Brown, the Supreme Court declared that the walls were unconstitutional. We had rights. We had to march and protest, sit-in, get arrested, and risk our lives to affirm those rights, but we no longer had walls to limit our dreams.
Yet, the end of legal segregation, as we’ve learned, did not mean the end of discrimination.
Jesse Jackson Sr. is the founder and president of the Rainbow/PUSH Coalition.